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Ibn Sina (avicenna)

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ibn sina (avicenna) is a figure that pundamental in many ways, was among the Muslim philosopher ibn sina (avicenna) not only Pundamental, but ibn sina (avicenna) also gain an appreciation of the higher into modern times. ibn sina (avicenna) was the only major Islamic philosophers who have successfully established a complete system of philosophy and detailed, a system that has dominated the philosophical tradition of Muslims several centuries.

This influence is manifested not only by ibn sina (avicenna) has a system, but because the system that Avicenna had appeared to indicate the type of authenticity that the soul of genius in finding a method - the method and reason - a reason that is necessary to redefine a purely rational and intellectual traditions inherited Hellenism ibnu Sina (avecinna) and even further in the Islamic religious system.

The idea was conceived a brilliant idea that ibn sina (avicenna) has contributed well to all the scientists, from both Muslim and non Muslim scientists. ibn sina (avicenna)'s popularity is no doubt, especially those from the discovery of ibn sina (avicenna) in the field of medicine, it can be seen from his very popular book of the Qanun fi al-Thib which has a lot to contribute in the field of medical science.

B. Intellectual biography of ibn sina (avicenna)

ibn sina (avicenna)'s full name is Abu `Ali al-Husayn ibn Hasan ibn` Abdillah ibn `Ali Sina. [1] In Europe (the West) ibn sina (avicenna) known as Avicenna Metamorphose result of the Jews - Spain - Latin. From the Spanish word pronounced Ibn Aben or Event. This change begins with the translation of business texts - Arabic manuscripts into Latin in the middle of the twelfth century in Spain. [2] ibn sina (avicenna) was born in 370 AH / 980 AD at Afshana, a small town near Bukhara, Uzbekistan is now the region (part of Persia), [3] and died on the first Friday of Ramadan in 428 AD H/1037 the age of 57 years, the body was interred in Hamadzan ibn sina (avicenna) (Tehran). [4]

ibn sina (avicenna)'s father was named Abdullah of Balkh, who is a distinguished scholar Ismaili, originally from Balkh, Khorasan, and at the birth of his son (ibn sina (avicenna)) he served as governor of a region in one of Nuh ibn Mansur settlement, now of Afghanistan (and Persian) . Mrs. ibn sina (avicenna) (Avicenna) called Satarah those from the Afshana. [5]

ibn sina (avicenna)'s name more famous as ibn sina (avicenna) was able to cure the disease called the King of Bukhara, Nuh ibn Mansur, and the age of ibn sina (avicenna) was only 17 years old. As a reward, the king asked ibn sina (avicenna) settled in the palace for the king in the healing process. But ibn sina (avicenna) rejects the fine, in return, he (ibn sina (avicenna)) only asked for permission to use the royal library of the books contained therein are difficult to obtain. It was used ibn sina (avicenna) (Avicenna) to read and find various references to increase their knowledge base to be more extensive and growing. [6] ibn sina (avicenna)'s ability to quickly absorb the various branches of science made ​​him master the material property of the royal library. Because of his genius, ibn sina (avicenna) mendapatka scientific titles such as Shaykh Ra `is and Galenos Arab. Degree is achieved by ibn sina (avicenna) when he was a teenager. [7]

After ibn sina (avicenna)'s father died when he was 22 years old, he moved to Jurjan, a town near the Caspian Sea, and there he began to write the encyclopedia of medical science that became known by the name of al-Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Qanun). ibn sina (avicenna) then moved to Ray, the town next to Taheran, and Avicenna or ibn sina (avicenna) Sayyedah this work to the Queen and her son Majd al-Dawla. Then the Sultan Shams al-Dawla's ruling in Hamdan (in the Western portion of Iran) to appoint a minister ibn sina (avicenna). Then ibn sina (avicenna) Hijrah to Isfahan and died in because of the pain that he suffered dysentery in the year 428 Hijrah in conjunction with the year 103 AD in Hamazan (now Iran). [8]


C. Education ibn sina (avicenna)

education ibn sina (avicenna) (Avicenna) was started at the age of five years in his hometown of Bukhara. The first knowledge that he learned was to read the Koran, ibn sina (avicenna) then goes on to study the Islamic religious sciences such as Tafsir, Fiqh, etc. Ushuluddin, thanks to the diligence and intelligence, ibn sina (avicenna) finally managed to memorize al-Quran and mastered the various branches of religious sciences at the age of less than ten years [9]. In other areas of Education, ibn sina (avicenna) also studied several disciplines such as mathematics, logic, physics, medicine, Astronomy, Law, and so forth.

Intelligence possessed by ibn sina (avicenna), he studied philosophy and many of its branches, which is quite admirable earnestness suggests that otodidaknya height, but at the ibn sina (avicenna) Arisstoteles dive into the science of his metaphysics, ibn sina (avicenna) despite already having trouble reading it over and over again even memorize ibn sina (avicenna) Still, for ibn sina (avicenna) Avicenna title has not been able to understand its contents. after reading the works of ibn sina (avicenna) the Al-Farabi in his treatise the book, then ibn sina (avicenna) can well understand the science of metaphysics. [10] Indirectly ibn sina (avicenna) has been studied for al-Farabi, even mentioned in his autobiography about budinya debt to Al-Farabi. [ 11]

At the age of 16 ibn sina (avicenna) began to be known as a treatment, and is completely known at the time he was 17 years old with proof that he has succeeded in curing the illness sultan Nuh Ibn Mansur Samani. To add to his knowledge, ibn sina (avicenna) also spent much of his time sebahagian read and discuss books that ibn sina (avicenna) considered important in the royal library named Mansur ibn Nuh polar Khana [12], this is where he releases the thirst of learning during the night so that all knowledge can be well mastered.

D. Guru - Guru ibn sina (avicenna)
In addition to the self-taught, ibn sina (avicenna) also absorb a variety of science teachers from several people, including Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad al-Ahmad al-Khwarizmi to Barqi linguistics, Ismail al-Zahid for the science of jurisprudence, Abu Sahl al-Mansur Abu Masihi and al-Hasan bin Nuh to medical science. He also learned arithmetic from `Ali Natili berkebangsaaan Ismaili Sufi India.

E. ibn sina (avicenna) Scientific Method
ibn sina (avicenna) is a philosopher of Islam who have successfully established a complete system of philosophy and detailed, a system that has dominated the Muslim philosophical tradition several centuries. This influence is manifested not only because he has a system, but because the system reveals its authenticity that shows the soul of genius in determining the methods necessary to redefine a purely rational and intellectual traditions that ibn sina (avicenna) or Avicenna, and inherited the Islamic religious system preformance. [13] Among the methods - methods that were born from the thought of ibn sina (avicenna) are:

The field of medicine that is TB disease and Chronis
About the dangerous diseases that are very disturbing modern-day man, it's been found and had looked for treatment by ibn sina (avicenna) in a thousand years ago.

Desmond Stewart said the new discoveries about infectious diseases Ibnu Sina TB saaat bias is harmful to human health, as well as Chrionis disease. In his book "Early Islam", Stewart explained: "ibn sina (avicenna) is credited Now Contributions with personal Such as recognizing the contagious nature of tuberculosis and skin diseases and describing Certain psychological disorders.

Among the latter was love sickness, the effects of the which were described as loss of weight and strength, fever and Various chronic ailments. The cure was quite simple, once the diagnosis was made ​​to have the sufferer united with the one he or she was pining for.

ibn sina (avicenna) also observed That Certain diseases can be spread by water and soil, and an advanced view for his time. Outside the realm of pure medicine, he invented a device precision saclike That helped to improv the accuracy of instruments used for measuring angles and short lengths. He also made ​​many investigations in the realm of physics, Helping to lay the foundations of experimental science That was to develop in the 16 th and 17 th Centuries ". [14] 

Meaning: "ibn sina (avicenna) left now shares personal information about recognition of the contagious nature of tuberculosis, in addition to ibn sina (avicenna) wrote about how to treat skin diseases and mental illness. Among the diseases that end, he has found the pain of love (love sicknes), due to loss of balance and self pennjagaan, as well as pain and fever diseases Chronis. Treatment is very simple, after examination, the patient can then be reconciled with dirinduinya people, both men and women.

F. major works of ibn sina (avicenna)
In the history of his life, ibn sina (avicenna), also known as a scientist who is very productive in producing various works of the book. Essay books covering almost all branches of science, diantarannya medical science, philosophy, psychology, physics, logic, political and literary Arabic. As for his works as follows:
Book of the Qanun fi al-Thib, which is the work of ibn sina (avicenna) in the field of medical science. This book had become the only reference in the field of medicine in Europe for about five centuries. This book is a treatment iktisar Islam and taught up to now in the East.

The Book of As-Shifa, which is the work of ibn sina (avicenna) in the field of philosophy. The book is, among others, contains a description of philosophy in all its aspects

The Book of An-Najah, which is a book which contains a summary of the book As-Shifa, the book was written by ibn sina (avicenna) for students who want to learn the basics of science lessons, in addition to a complete book also discusses ibn sina (avicenna)'s thinking about the science of the Soul .

Book Aqsam Fi al-Ulum al-Aqliyah, which is the work of ibn sina (avicenna) in the field of physics. The book is written in Arabic and were kept in various libraries in Istanbul, its publication was first performed in Cairo in 1910 AD, while the translation into Hebrew and Latin are still there until now.

Kitab al-wa al-Tanbihat cues, it contains a description of the logic and wisdom [15].
In addition to these books are still many works of ibn sina (avicenna) that amounted to quite large, but to find out how many books are works of Avicenna is certainly very difficult, given the difference of a little amount of data used. But to answer this, at least two opinions. First, from the investigation conducted by the Father of Domician in Cairo to the works of ibn sina (avicenna), he recorded as many as 276 (two hundred seventy six) pieces. Secondly, Phillip K.Hitti using the checklist devised al-Qifti said that the works of ibn sina (avicenna) wrote about 99 (ninety nine) of fruit [16].

G. The influence of ibn sina (avicenna)
Influence of philosophical works of ibn sina (avicenna) as thought and his study in the medical field is not restricted to the Muslim world but also spread to Europe. ibn sina (avicenna)'s contributions to the thought and science is great to have a significant and recognized scientists, thinkers and philosophers of succeeding generations. Thanks to his achievements in medical science, ibn sina (avicenna) gained the nickname "Father of Doctors" (Father of The Doctor). Natsir Arsyad [17] states that the veteran physician Avicenna Medicorum been dubbed the Principal or the "King of Kings Doctor", by the Latin scholastics. Another nickname ever given to ibn sina (avicenna), for example, is the "King of Medicine". In the Islamic world itself, he considered the zenith, the highest peak in medical science.

George Sarton, stating that the medical achievements of ibn sina (avicenna) down so completely that other donations from around the world, as if they just made ​​a discovery that is smaller, and while it shrinks the original investigation a few centuries after ibn sina (avicenna). Sarton also describes the influence of ibn sina (avicenna) a profound effect on the scope and development of Western medicine. Scientific work (textbook) ibn sina (avicenna) is the main reference and basic medical sciences in Europe within a period of time longer than the other books ever written. [18]

It seems like the most important contributions of ibn sina (avicenna) which was bequeathed to the world of medicine in medical science, the Qanun fi al-Tibb (Canon of Medicine, the Constitution of Medical Sciences). Seyyed Hossein Nasr [19] states that the work of the Qanun was the work of the most widely read and most influential in the Islamic and European medical science. This great work is one of the most often printed book in Europe in the Renaissance in his Latin translation by Gerard of Cremona. Standard text book consists of five main sections: general principles, drugs, diseases of certain organs, the tendency of local disease spread throughout the body, is like a fever, and drug compound. Arsyad also mentioned that ibn sina (avicenna)'s Qanun book since the Han dynasty in China had become standard medical works of China. In the Middle Ages, a large number of works of ibn sina (avicenna) was translated into Latin and Hebrew, which are the languages ​​of science instruction time. [20]

In the field of philosophy, ibn sina (avicenna) considered the imam of the philosopher in his time, even before and after. ibn sina (avicenna) self-taught and original genius is not just the Islamic world it is indeed a flattering one glittering star emits its own light, which is not a loan so that Roger Bacon, the famous philosopher of Western Europe during the Middle Ages Regacy of Islam said in his Alfred Gullaume: "Most of the Aristotle could not give the slightest influence in the West, because his book hidden somewhere, and If there were, once he gets very difficult and very difficult to be understood and loved people because of wars - war sebeleah rampant in the East, until the time of ibn sina (avicenna) and Ibn Rushd and other Eastern poets also proves again the philosophy of Aristotle along with lighting and an extensive explanation. [21]

In addition to their versatility as flosof and physician, ibn sina (avicenna) was a poet. Science - science such as psychology, medicine and chemistry there that he wrote in verse, can be found through the book - a book he authored for the logic of science with poetry. Most of his books have been copied from the Latin. When the people of the middle century Europe, began to use the book - the book as a textbook in many universities. Hence the name of ibn sina (avicenna) in the Middle Ages in Europe is very influential. [22]

In the Islamic world the books of ibn sina (avicenna) famous, not only because of the density of his knowledge, but because the language is good and the way he writes is very bright. In addition to writing in Arabic, ibn sina (avicenna) also wrote in Persian. His books in Persian, was published in Tehran in 1954. Can be concluded that such a large influence on Avicenna presented his thoughts pour upon us. Brilliant ideas of ibn sina (avicenna) gives a significant impact in science, to let us reproduce that we can find out thanks for the sciences that are written by ibn sina (avicenna) in his works. 

H. Lessons from the personal character of ibn sina (avicenna)

Important lessons can be learned from the story of ibn sina (avicenna) start over from childhood, adolescence to old age is that life is indeed full of struggle and hard work in their studies so that knowledge can be useful to themselves and others. The balance of faith and piety of ibn sina (avicenna), as evidenced by studying the Qur, an from small to prove that the soul of childhood filled with the Holy Spirit so that in the course of his life is always hope and the blessings and resignation to God to achieve goals, in addition to trying to learn science with a teacher and taught himself.

By reading the Koran early on humans can explore science in it, because the Qur'an is true knowledge and life in nature is a practice. ibn sina (avicenna) was thoroughly combine all that is between the Qur'an and practice in this universe, so comes the ideas or thoughts that do not exist in the West at that time. With the work that at times it can change the world in the field of medicine is very admirable and remarkable is worth ibn sina (avicenna) was the inspiration of many people, both Muslim and non-Muslims who want to learn about science, especially medicine, philosophy and natural sciences.

As a parent who has always wanted children and descendants to be a bright child in all areas, of course, it is recommended to follow the life story of ibn sina (avicenna) above. That is a lesson to balance between religion and science general knowledge or science as a practice. So if the way to the goal to be achieved, in the middle of the road having problems or gravel, then the child is not easily discouraged. But it can pause from the hustle and bustle world, then get closer to the Creator of life, then God willing all the difficulties that face will immediately resolved because we are always given to the Creator. Although it was not on the face of adversity just to ask for help, but every time we have to remember menginggat to God, so that all the work that is being done is always given Ridho by him and given the ease despite all the obstacles there, but if from the beginning was intended to good purposes and for the people, must always be guided by him. ibn sina (avicenna) .... yes!

I. ibn sina (avicenna)'s career as a Scientist
The first began his career ibn sina (avicenna) gait follow their parents, which helped tasks amir Nuh ibn Mansur. ibn sina (avicenna) asked to compile such a collection of philosophical thinking by Abu al-Husain al-Arudi. For this he composed the book al-Majmu '. After that ibn sina (avicenna) writes a book al-Hashil wa al-Mashul and al-Birr wa al-Ism at the request of Abu Bakr al-al-Hawarizmy Barqy [23].

After the age of ibn sina (avicenna) or Avicenna into twenty-two years old, his father died, and then there was political turmoil in the government body Nuh ibn Mansur. Both sons of the kingdom, namely Abd Malik Mansur and each other for power, which was won by Abd Malik. Furthermore, in an unstable government that happens serbuam by Mahmud al-Ghaznavids empire, so that the whole empire centered in Bukhara Samani fell into the hands of Mahmud al-Ghaznavids is [24].

In a state of chaos bagitu political situation, ibn sina (avicenna) decided to leave the region of origin. He went to Karkang which includes the capital of al-Khawarizm, and ibn sina (avicenna) in the area enjoying the respect and good treatment. In this city also ibn sina (avicenna) much acquainted with a number of experts such as scientists, Abu al-Khir al-Khamar, Abu Sahl 'Isa ibn Yahya al-al-Jurjani Masity, Abu Rayhan al-Biruni and Abu al-Iraqi Nash. After that ibn sina (avicenna) proceeded to Nasa, Abiwarud, Syaqan, and continue to Jurjan Jajarin. After that he was flown last city is also less secure, ibn sina (avicenna) decided to move to Rayi and work on the As-Sayyida al-Majid and his son who at the time Daulah attacked by the disease, and help heal it. Historical and scientific aspects of his life's journey can be the first fasa.Yang dibahagi the two-phase formation is (al-tahsil) and the productive phase (al-al-ilmi intaj).

The first phase of the learning phase of ibn sina (avicenna) began from the age of five years so that in ten years studying basic science and the Quran and religious sciences. ibn sina (avicenna) had more time learning is dominated by the more absorbing; in which the activity of ibn sina (avicenna)'s more to the receptive and retentive. Phase two, which is the phase that is more productive during his twenty-one this tahun.Waktu ibn sina (avicenna) began to make the activity more productive. ibn sina (avicenna) is more productive activities that generate the works productively and synthesis. He started writing books about metaphysics, logic, kedoktoran, psychology, physics.

Conclusion
Name origin: Abu Ali al-Hassan bin Abdullah bin Huseyn Ali ibn sina (avicenna) Balkhi western names: Avicenna, Year born: 370 H / 980 AD, the Year of death: 428 H / 1037 AD, Nations: Persia, died: Afshanah Village, (near Kharmaitan city, Bukhara Propinzi) buried: Hamadan, Tehran

ibn sina (avicenna) was one of the leading scientists, scientific theories and introduce perubatan that he has brought a great contribution in the field perubatan today, he has been crowned as the Father Perubatan. at the age of 10 years has been able to memorize ibn sina (avicenna) al-Qur `an, and at the age of 17 years he has become a famous doctor.

ibn sina (avicenna) is the leader of the most influential Islamic scholars. He was not famous Sahaja among Muslims even western people also mengkagumi stature.
The works he continued to serve as a guide from the previous generation so now. The works he covers many aspects as there is in terms of science and philosophy perubatan. For scholars of philosophy and jurisprudence, reference materials and books written by him that are still used extensively. Medical science is still digunapakai so he is now.


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References and Footnote

REFERENCES

Athif al-`Iraqy, Muhammad, al-al-Islamiyyat philosophy, (Cairo: Dar al-Ma` arif, 1978).

Arsyad, Natsir, Muslim Scientists Throughout History (New York: Mizan, 1989).

Haque, M. Atiqul, face Civilization: Tracing Traces of the Great Persons Islam, trans. Budi Rahmat et.al, (New York: Times, 1998).

Hasyimsyah, Islamic Philosophy, (New York: First Style Media, 2002), Cet. VI.

Hoesin, Oemar Amin, Islamic Philosophy, (New York: Crescent Star, 1975).

Madjid, Nurcholis, Foot Heaven Islamic Civilization, (New York: Paramadina, 1997).

Munawir, Priest, Warrior 30 Know Your Personal and Islamic thinkers from time to time, (New York: PT. Development Studies, 1985).

Nasution, Aaron, Seen From the various aspects of Islam, (New York: University of Indonesia, 1996).

Nata, Abuddin, Thought The Islamic Educational Leaders, (New York: King Grafindo Persada, 2000).

Nasr, Seyyed Hossein, Science and Civilization in Islam (Cambridge, 1968).

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Rahman, Fazlur, Avicenna's Psychology, (London: Oxford University Press, 1959)

Riswanto, Arif Munandar, Clever Books Islam, (New York: PT Mizan Press, 2010)

Sarton, George, A History of Science (New York: Harvard University Press, 1952)

Ushaibah, Ibn, Uyun al-Anba, Juz II, (Egypt: Al-Mathba'ah al-Wahabiyyah, 1299 H)

Zaenal Abidin, Ahmad, Ibn Siena (Avecenna) Filsuf Bachelor and the World, (Crescent Star, 1949)

Zar, Sirajuddin, philosopher of philosophy of Islamic Philosophy, (New York: King Grafindo Persada, 2009).



Footnote



[1] M. Atiqul Haque, Faces of Civilization: Tracing Traces of the Great Persons Islam, trans. Budi Rahmat et.al, (New York: Times, 1998), p. 67

[2] Sirajuddin Zar, philosopher of philosophy of Islamic Philosophy, (New York: King Grafindo Persada, 2009), p. 91. See also: Nurcholis Madjid, Foot Heaven Islamic Civilization, (New York: Paramadina, 1997), p. 94

[3] Muhammad al-`Athif Iraqy, al-al-Islamiyyat philosophy, (Cairo: Dar al-Ma` arif, 1978), p. 43

[4] Arif Munandar Riswanto, Clever Books Islam, (New York: PT Mizan Press, 2010), p. 446

[5] Wikipedia the free encyclopedia, ibn sina (avicenna), (http://ms.wikipedia.org./wiki/Abu Ali al - Hussain Ibn Abdallah ibn sina (avicenna)), retrieved 1juni 2011. See also: Harun Nasution, Seen From the various aspects of Islam, (New York: UniversitasIndonesia), 1996, p. 50

[6] Harun Nasution, philosophy and mysticism in Islam, (New York: Crescent Star), 1992, p. 34

[7] Arif Munandar, Op Cit, p. 445

[8] Syamsul Rizal, Introduction to Islamic Philosophy, (New York: CitaPustaka Media Pioneers, 2010), p. 141

[9] Ibn Ushaibah, Uyun al-Anba, Juz II, (Egypt: Al-Mathba'ah al-Wahabiyyah, H 1299), p. 2

[10] H. Zaenal Abidin Ahmad, Ibn Siena (Avecenna) Filsuf Bachelor and the World, (Crescent Star), 1949, p. 49

[11] Majid Fakhry, History of Islamic Philosophy, quote: Sirajuddin, Op Cit, p. 93

[12] Muhammad al-`Athif Iraqy, Op Cit, p. 44

[13] Syamsul Rizal, Op Cit, p. 144

[14] Desmond Stewart, early Islam, (New York: Time Inc., 1967), p. 127

[15] See Fazlur Rahman, Avicenna's Psychology, (London: Oxford University Press, 1959), p. 64.

[16] Abuddin Nata, Thought The Islamic Educational Leaders, (New York: King Grafindo Persada, 2000), p. 65.



[17] Natsir Arsyad, Muslim Scientists Throughout History (New York: Mizan, 1989), p. 61

[18] George Sarton, A History of Science (New York: Harvard University Press, 1952) p. 31

[19] Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Science and Civilization in Islam (Cambridge: The Islamic Texts Society 1987), p 51

[20] Arsyad, opcit

[21] Imam Munawir, Know Your Personal 30 Swordsman and Islamic thinkers of the period to

period, (New York: PT. Bina Ilmu1985), p. 332-333

[22] Oemar Hoesin Amin, Islamic Philosophy, (New York: Crescent Star 1975), p. 112-113

[23] al-`Athif Iraqy, Muhammad, al-al-Islamiyyat philosophy, (Cairo: Dar al-Ma` arif, 1978). Thing. 34

[24] De Lacy O'Leary, Al-Fikr al-'Arabi wa fi al-Tarikh Makanuhu, (Egypt: al-Muassasah a'Ammah, H 1401), p. 181.
Ibrahim Lubis

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