Anatomy | Curriculum Design - Aneka Ragam Makalah
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Anatomy | Curriculum Design

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Anatomy Anatomia comes from Greek, from anatemnein, which means cutting or later would be more appropriate in the subject or we might call the sense we mean by using the structure or arrangement of parts or components or also [4]. The curriculum is one component that has an important role in the education system, because the curriculum is not only formulated the objectives to be achieved so that the clear direction of education, but also provide insight into the learning experience to be possessed by every student. Hence the fundamental importance of the function and role of the curriculum, the curriculum at every stage of any development should be based on certain principles [5].


Anatomy of the curriculum can be formulated into four parts, namely, first, that goal will be achieved, both in the learning process, the three materials to be delivered, the fourth evaluation. From this formulation salingketerkaitan fourth between each other. Objectives to be achieved must be in accordance with the process to be performed, materials to be delivered can not be separated from the process and goals will be achieved in a curriculum. Thus the formulation of the final evaluation of the tradeoffs that are relevant to the further development of the curriculum.

Objectives will direct all activities of teaching and coloring other curriculum components. While the formulation of objectives based on, first, the development of the demands, needs, and conditions of the community, second, the philosophical values ​​of achievement, especially the philosophy of the state (National Educational Objectives). Lias Hasibuan [6] suggested several principles in curriculum development, namely:
The principle of goal-oriented.
Principle of Relevance
Efficiency Principle.
The principle of flexibility.
Principle of Integrity.
Principle of Continuity.
The principle of synchronization.
The principle of objectivity.
Democratic principles.

CURRICULUM COMPONENT
Component is an integral and functional part that can not be separated from a system of curriculum, because the component itself has a role in shaping the curriculum system. As a system, the curriculum has components. The components of a school curriculum can be easily identified by reviewing the book or the curriculum document itself. Of the curriculum content of the document can know what are the components that make up the curriculum system [7].

Sanjaya Vienna [8] argued that the curriculum is a system that has certain components. When one of the components that make up the curriculum system is disturbed or not related to other components, then the system would also disrupted kurikulumpun.

Component Development of curriculum objectives.
Objective component is one very important component in curriculum development. Curriculum according to Law No. 20 of 2003 on national education system is a set of plans and arrangements regarding the purpose and content or teaching materials and methods used to guide the implementation of learning [9].

Sanjaya Vienna [10] suggested several reasons why the goals should be formulated in the curriculum. First, the purpose is closely related to the direction and objectives to be achieved by any educational efforts. Curriculum is a tool to achieve educational goals, thus the formulation of objectives is one of the components that must exist within a curriculum. Second, through clear objectives, it can assist curriculum developers in designing a model that can be used even kuriukulum will assist teachers in designing learning system. Third, a clear curriculum objectives can be used as a control in determining the limits and the quality of learning.

Achievement of the objectives of the curriculum components will be crucial for the achievement of this objective component rectly to the achievement of educational goals later [11].

The purpose of classification.
According to Bloom [12] forms of behavior as a goal that should be classified into three classifications dirumuskandapat or three domains (fields), the cognitive domain, affective domain and psychomotor domain.


Cognitive domains.


Cognitive domains are associated with the educational goals of intellectual ability or ability to think like the ability to recall and problem-solving skills, cognitive domain consists of six levels, namely:

Knowledge (knowledge).


Understanding.


The application.


Analysis.


Synthesis.


Evaluation.

Affective domain.
Affective domain with respect to attitudes, values ​​and appreciation. Domain is a continuation of the cognitive domain. Krathwohl [13] suggests that the affective domain has several levels, namely:
Acceptance.
Respond.
Appreciate.
Organizing.
Characterization of the value.
Psychomotor domain.
Psychomotor domain dalah purpose related to the ability of a person's skills. This domain can be divided into six bangian, 1. Reflex motion. 2. Basic skills. 3. Perceptual skills. 4. Physical skills. 5. Movement skills. 6. Non-discursive communication.
Hierarchical goal.

Judging from hirakisnya educational purposes consists of a very general purpose to special tutjuan be specific and measurable. The purpose of a general nature to the special nature can be classified into emapat parts: first, the purpose of National Education (TPN), including long-term goal, the ideal goal of education Nations Indonesia [14]. Second, the purpose of the Institutional (TI), include something educational objectives of educational institutions. Third, Curricular Objectives (TK), includes the objectives to be achieved by any program of study. Fourth, Instrkuksional purpose or goal of learning (TP), includes targets to be achieved by any subjects [15].

Component Development of curriculum materials.

Development of curriculum materials is essentially directed to develop learning materials to look for learning purposes. Learning material is a device to facilitate the understanding of the learning material. Mistake in choosing learning materials can menghamabt learning process and achievement of learning objectives. Thus the components of the development of curriculum materials greatly affect the learning objectives that will be done in the classroom. The selection of teaching materials in the curriculum is an absolute must in this component.
Learning materials (instructional materials) is pengethuan, attitudes, and skills that must be known and have the students in order to achieve the ability or competence that has been determined [16].
Sanjaya Vienna [17] suggests that the material or curriculum (curriculum materials) is the content or curriculum that must be understood in uapay students achieve curriculum objectives. Component materials are materials that consist dai study of science, values, experience, and skills developed into the learning process in order to achieve the objective component [18]. Kompenen development of materials that will be developed in the teaching materials is an important factor in achieving a predetermined tujaun. It aims to give students an understanding of what is delivered by a teacher in achieving the learning objectives contained within the curriculum that has been arranged. In developing the components of matter, to consider the sources of material development is intended in the curriculum.

A. Sources of curriculum materials.

Community as a source of curriculum.
School serves to prepare students to live ditenagah society. Community needs to be considered in curriculum development include the community in the neighborhood (local), communities in the national order and the global community. Sources of curriculum materials other than fabric sourced from global and national life, the material must also be sourced from the surrounding community. In particular, local communities have a culture (local wisdom) in which the curriculum is implemented separately. This is quite important, because after all local wisdom is an important portion in the advancing process of education which will be held. Besides, it also teaches students the importance of local wisdom as Soko Guru of national culture [19].

Students as a curriculum resource.
There are several things that must be considered in the formulation of curriculum content which relates to the students, namely:
Sebabaiknya curriculum tailored to the child's development.
Sebaikanya curriculum includes skills, knowledge and attitudes that students can use the experience as well as useful now meet those needs in the future.
Students are encouraged to learn thanks hendakany own activities.
What students should learn in accordance with the interests and desires of students [20].
Science as a curriculum resource.
2. Phase selection of curriculum materials.
Selection of the measures to be implemented in the development of curriculum materials. Selection is mencakuap, First, identification of needs (need assesement), Second, a curriculum materials (assess the curriculum materials), the Third, analysis of materials (analyze the materials), the Fourth, assessment of curriculum materials (appraisal of curriculum materials), the Fifth, make decision to adopt the material (make anadoption decision) [21].
3. The types of curriculum materials.
This type of curriculum materials consist of student emotion sdipelajari facts, concepts, principles, laws, and skills. The fact is the nature of or a symptom, event, thing, that his form can be captured by the five senses, while the fact is the knowledge associated with specific data (single) either has or is going to be tested or observed [22].
4. Criteria for Determination of curriculum materials.
There are several considerations in determining the curriculum materials from the viewpoint of students, namely: First, the level of maturity of the students, Secondly, level of practice of the child, third, phase of the material difficulties [23].
Component method.

Components into two methods can dibagai bahaagian, (a). method in the broad sense is not just teaching methods alone but involves learning strategies, and build values, knowledge, experience, and skills in the students themselves, (b). method in the narrow sense of the use is one way of teaching or learning [24].
Evaluation of components.

Evaluation is an act done to find out the results of teaching in particular and in general education outcomes. Other than that the evaluation is also useful for the improvement of teaching (evaluation as feed back) [25].
To see the extent of success in the implementation of curriculum evaluation is required. Evaluation component is a component that is closely linked to other components, then the way of assessment or evaluation will determine the objectives of the curriculum, materials or ingredients, as well as teaching and learning process.
Assessment is very important, not only to show the extent of students' achievement, but also a source of input in an effort to improve and reform the curriculum. Assessment in a broad sense, not only can be done by educators, but also the wider community [26].

CURRICULUM DESIGN

Curriculum design is a design, pattern or model. Designing the curriculum means a draft or develop a model curriculum in accordance with the vision and mission of the school. Designing the curriculum is inseparable from the stats are mature and well planned so that the goals will be achieved well too. Mike Threlfall said: "The aim of planning across the curriculum is to balance the needs of children and staff with Those of The Necessary systems, procedures and policies in relation to planning. I have indicated a need to plan thoroughly and carefully but you will also need to find a place for flexibility, spontaneity and imagination "[27].
Thus, desian curriculum is inseparable from the purpose of curriculum planning that balances the needs of children and people involved with the necessary systems, procedures and policies in relation to planning. I have shown the need for meticulous planning and careful, but you will also need to find a place for flexibility, spontaneity and imagination.
In designing the curriculum, there are several models of curriculum design that can be expressed in this paper, namely:
Curriculum Design Disciplines.

Longstreet [28] defines the curriculum design is a design-centered curriculum knowledge (the knowledge-centered design) designed based on the structure of disciplines, therefore this design model curriculum models jiga called academic subjects penekananny geared to students' intellectual development.
There are three forms of organisisi curriculum-oriented disciplines, namely: design centered subject, learned centered design, centered design problem. Any design or kurikukum provide an effective technique in the learning process in order to operate effectively and efficiently. But not every curriculum design can be used as guidelines in melaksanakn the learning process, because each curriculum design has advantages and disadvantages in its implementation.

Subject Centered Curriculum.

On this subject, or the content of curriculum materials prepared in the form of separate subjects, the subjects, these subjects do not relate to one another. Organization or the content of curriculum materials on the subject is centered on separate subjects, the curriculum is also subject curriculum dinamaka separated [29]

Correlated Curriculum Subject.
In the organization of this curriculum subjects are not presented separately, but the subjects-subjects who have close or similar subjects are grouped so that it becomes a field of study (Broadfield). Correlate the material or the content of curriculum materials can be performed by several approaches, namely: 1). Structural approach, the approach to study a subject in terms of what kind of subjects. 2). Functional approach, namely an approach based on the assessment of significant problems in daily life, and 3). Regional approaches, namely the approach of subjects determined by the location or place [30].

Integreted Curriculum.
Model of curriculum organization is no longer reveal the names of subjects or fields of study, but learning a basic set of problems to be solved, then the problem is called a unit. Subject Correlated Curriculum serves to develop the intellectual and student of all aspects related to attitudes, emotions, and skills. Curriculum organization works to develop the cognitive processes or the development of students' ability to think through ideas and exercises using the process of scientific research [31].

Community-Oriented Curriculum Design.
Beauchamp [32] formulate a curriculum that is oriented desian Communities is a social group desian be a learning experience for children in the group. That is, the problems faced and required by a social group, should be the subject of study in school pupils.
There are three perspectives kuriukulum design-oriented society, namely:
Status Quo's perspective (the status quo perspective).
The draft curriculum is geared to preserving the cultural values ​​of society
Updates perspective (the reformist perspective).
The curriculum was developed to further improve the quality of the community itself.
Future perspectives (the futurist perspective).
This perspective is often associated with social reconstruction curriculum, which emphasizes the process of developing the relationship between curriculum and social life, politics, society and economy. This curriculum model prefer the social interests of the individual interests [33].

Student-Oriented Curriculum Design.
The underlying this design is that education is organized to help students. Furthermore Muhaimin [34] states that as the main object in education, especially in teaching and learning, learner plays a very dominant. In teaching and learning, students can determine the success of learning through the use of intelligence, motor power, pengelaman, willingness and commitment that arise in them without coercion. So the curriculum must be able to adjust to the rhythm of development of the students. In designing curriculum-oriented students should consider the following:
Sdisesuaikan with emotion curriculum development.
Content of the curriculum should include skills, knowledge and attitudes dianggab useful for the present and the future.
Children should be placed as the subject of study that seeks to learn on their own. This means that students should be encouraged to perform a variety of learning activities, not just receive information from the teacher.
Cultivated what students are learning in accordance with their interests, talents and their developmental level. That is, what should dupelajari not be determined and considered to be good from the point of the teacher or from another angle but the angle is determined from the students themselves [35].
Curriculum design oriented students, can be viewed in two perspectives, namely:
Perspective of the lives of children in the community.
Students as a source of curriculum believe that the essence of learning for students is when students learn in real terms from their lives in the community. The curriculum is oriented towards students in the perspective of life in society, expect to learn in school curriculum materials and learning experiences, disesain accordance with the needs of children as a preparation to enable them to live in the community.
Psychological Perspectives.

This perspective is to design a curriculum that is based on the consideration of life-learners. Curriculum design is intended for the benefit of learners, therefore considerations of psychiatric learners immortalized as one that is important to understand the process of implementation of the curriculum [36]. In a psychological perspective, curriculum design oriented students, often interpreted as a curriculum that is humanistic, which emerged as a reaction to the educational process that prioritizes only intellectually. Sanagt humanistic curriculum emphasizes the existence of good emotional relationship between teacher and student. Teachers should be able to build a warm and intimate atmosphere that allows students to devote all his feelings with confidence [37]. While the point of view of Islamic education in the humanistic approach to curriculum development started from the idea of "humanizing humans". Creation of the context in which human beings will member the opportunity to become more human, to enhance human dignity is a basic philosophy, the basic theory, basic evaluation and development of basic education programs [38]
Technological Curriculum Design.

Technological approach in developing curriculum or educational program starting from the analysis of the competencies required to perform certain tasks. The material is taught, the evaluation criteria of success, and learning strategies are set in accordance with task analysis (job analysis) [39]. Model design technology curriculum focused on the effectiveness of programs, methods, and materials that dianggab can achieve the goal. Technology affects the curriculum can be viewed from two sides, namely the application of the results of the technology and application of technology as a system [40].
Technology curriculum, much influenced by the psychology of learning Behavioristic. One hallmark of this study is to emphasize the pattern of mechanical behavior as depicted in Stimulus Response theory. This curriculum has karakteristuk as follows:
Learning is seen as a process in response to stimuli.
Learning is governed by certain measures by the number of tasks that must be learned.
In particular, students learn individually, although in certain respects, be Saj study group [41].
Subsequent to the effectiveness and successful implementation of technology curriculum let the principles as follows:
Sense of purpose, meaning that students need to understand that learning is directed to an end.
Learning students are given the opportunity to practice skills in accordance with the objectives.
Students need to be told the results had been achieved. Thus, students need to be aware of whether learning is dianggab enough or still need help [42].
With attention to the things mentioned above, as well as the involvement of students in full dlam teaching and learning process, then the set objectives will be achieved as expected. On the other hand teachers as curriculum planners and designers must know the state haarus schools in general and students in particular circumstances.

CLOSING

The paper, entitled Anatomy and Curriculum Design describes what components should be on every curriculum and curriculum design that can digunankan to the learning process. In pendesaianan curriculum, there are several components, including the objectives of the curriculum, teaching materials or the materials or content of the curriculum, teaching strategies or teaching methods, and evaluation of teaching. These components are interconnected to one another. Each component has a content which is essential for the survival of the curriculum.
Curriculum design is a lesson plan to be implemented by teachers and students in the learning process. Design a curriculum that can be used include subject-centered curriculum, subject correlated curriculum, integrated curriculum. Any design or kurikukum provide an effective technique in the learning process in order to operate effectively and efficiently. But not every curriculum design can be used as a guide in the learning process. So each curriculum design has advantages and shortcomings in its implementation.
In addition to traditional paper Javanese tradition of seven monthly (tingkeban) in the Muslim community, and find other papers on aneka ragam makalah

Refrences
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Ibrahim Lubis

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