Modernization of thought in Islam (Sunni-Shiite) - Aneka Ragam Makalah
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Modernization of thought in Islam (Sunni-Shiite)

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Modernization of thought in Islam aims to keep pace with Western society. modernization of Muslims are strongly encouraged to improve progress in various fields. Reform movements of religious thought are growing and developing in the Middle East in principle is an effort to revive the teachings and reject rational Mu'tazilite blind imitation. No wonder so many people refer to as Neo-thinking Mu'tazilite Abduh.


B. Renewal and modernization in Islam

In principle, the reformers of Islam are those who think and act on the phenomenon of life, so that people freed from the shackles of a stagnant system toward progress (modern) by sticking to the essential values ​​of Islam. Their way to release and promote the people is also very heterogeneous, there is an accommodative, provocative, and radically.

The emergence of thinkers and reformers like Jamaluddin Al-Afghani (1839-1897 AD), Muhammad Abduh (1849-1905 AD), Muhammad Rashid Rida (1865-1935 AD), Muhammad bin Abd al-Wahab (1703-1792 AD), Hasan Al -Banna (1906-1949 AD), Abul A'la Al-Mawdudi (1903-1979 AD), Sayyid Qutb (1906-1968 AD), and Ali Abd Ar-Raziq (1888-1966 AD), who later gave birth to what is called fundamentalism, modernism, traditionalism, secularism, Islam, nationalism, and others are real forms of the intensive interaction between Islam and social problems.

Orientation Updates
The decline of Islam to Muslim intellectuals to think hard how to eradicate backwardness of Muslims in order to stand in line with other people. Muslims in order to advance and keep pace with other nations, Jamaluddin Al-Afghani, for example, is more focused on Muslim nationalism and unity of Islam (Pan-Islamism) to liberate Muslims from the clutches of the invaders, while Muhammad Abduh more oriented towards education and understanding by reviving religious teachings and reject rational Mu'tazilite blind imitation. No wonder so many people refer to as Neo-thinking Mu'tazilite Abduh.

Rashid Rida, a disciple Abduh, the Muslim modernization he advocates a return to the Qur'an and Sunnah. According to Ridha, in every Muslim should resolve the issue turned to two sources, and not have to turn to the West. Ridha also emphasized in the field of law reform, for it requires the restoration of the Khilafah Islamiyah. According to him, the political system of Islam is the true caliphate system, where the Caliph consulted scholars for scholars is the interpreter of Islamic law. Although Rida supports the establishment of the caliphate system, but it also supports nationalism. According to him, nationalism is not to weaken the unity of transnational Islam (Pan-Islamism) to the Islamic ideal remains intact. [3]

Adil Muhammad ibn-Wahab wants the Islamic community to follow the footsteps of Prophet Mohammad. is pure. Dimotorinya movement is a movement that intends to conduct purification (purification) of the teachings of Islam that has been mixed with local culture. He rejected all forms of idolatry as religious visit to the tombs of the saints with the intention of asking for blessing and attacked Sufi practices that he regarded as heresy. He advocated a return to the Qur'an and Sunnah and reject the authority of the past to keep his honor. Abd al-Wahab thought was inspired by the understanding of Ibn Taymiyyah, who are routinely called on to return to the "origins" of Islam. In contrast to Ibn Taymiyyah, in combating what he thinks is wrong, 'Abd al-Wahab use of armed force and violence.

Hasan Al-Banna (founder of the Brethren), Al-Mawdudi (founder Jema'at Islam), and Sayyid Qutb (the Brethren ideologues), the same figures who fought against the central government's ruling that deemed incompatible with Islamic teachings. They are, according to L. Carl Brown (Faces of Political Islam, 2003: 234), which provides the foundation for idologis movements of radical Sunni groups. They are considered to be the inspiration that gave birth to radical movements throughout the Islamic world, a bouquet of them are now a must-read for those who fall into radical movements. In contrast to Brown who view Hasan al-Banna as a fundamentalist, Karen Armstrong does not see al-Banna as a fundamentalist, but as a reformer who wants fundamental reform of the Muslim community. [4]

Meanwhile, the modernization of Muslim society to keep pace with the West, according to Abd al-Raziq requires an absolute separation between state and Islam. According to Raziq, Islam is not coming is not to establish a country and so does the Prophet Muhammad. was a prophet who served deliver his message, he had no obligation to form a state. According to Abd al-Raziq, Islam does not recognize the institution of the caliphate as commonly understood by Muslims. Institution of the caliphate had nothing to do with religious duties. Islam does not order to establish the Caliphate and also does not prohibit. Religion (Islam) leave it up to our free choice. [5]

Towards Religious Humanism
Reform movements of religious thought are growing and developing in the Middle East in principle is an effort to revive the teachings and reject rational Mu'tazilite blind imitation. No wonder so many people refer to as Neo-thinking Mu'tazilite Abduh.

Meanwhile, the modernization of Muslim society to keep pace with the West, according to Abd al-Raziq requires an absolute separation between state and Islam. According to Raziq, Islam is not coming is not to establish a country and so does the Prophet Muhammad. was a prophet who served deliver his message, he had no obligation to form a state. According to Abd al-Raziq, Islam does not recognize the institution of the caliphate as commonly understood by Muslims. Institution of the caliphate had nothing to do with religious duties. Islam does not order to establish the Caliphate and also does not prohibit. Religion (Islam) leave it up to our free choice.

Because the thought and the movement is too "power oriented", other areas that touch the real needs of society over almost forgotten. In fact, the fields of social, educational, community and economic empowerment is essential for the progress of Muslims. Rational thinking in the reform movement that should stand on its core values, which raise the dignity of man, which is not long have the power.

Qur'an or hadith has given directives to address the humanitarian issues, including how to keep the Muslims out of poverty. This issue also by Emil Salim, a Muslim become a big job. Religion is not only teaches how a servant in touch with the divine. That is what must be worked out by the figures and Islamic organizations. We have to make Islam as a driving force, it gives birth to the term revitalization of Islamic resurgence that is expected to raise the degree of community life of Indonesia from the poverty trap.

Renewal of Islamic thought requires a real effort, not only in the field of faith and worship in the typical sense, but also the social rituals. Islamic reform movement must be understood as an effort to return to the sources of Islamic teachings which explicitly require the use of reason to understand it in all fields of life, whether social, political, economic, educational, and others in accordance with the times.

Global issues that challenge people today is secular humanism. According Syafiq Mughni community should respond to these issues in a spirit of "reform", which means understanding the texts of the Koran and Hadith leads to a systematic understanding of the reformative purpose. [6] The response requires the formulation of reformative ideals of Islam and then direct every thought humans in terms of approaching that goal.

Form of response "reformative", according Syafiq ijtihad can be interpreted as the most proportionate, because the demand is open but critical attitude. Openness means willingness to consider the development of universal human values, and attitudes critical means to control values ​​in order to move toward the ideals of Islam. Such reforms can only be done if it is able to control "secular humanism" to the "religious humanism", the human values ​​that Islam does not separate from the system.

Therefore, understanding the scope of ijtihad, and ijtihad should be expanded, not only limited to the issues "fiqh typical", but also includes areas of socio-economic, educational, and others. Ijtihad should also be oriented on its efforts to build and empower the community so it's really serious benefits for mankind kemajauan.

C. About Sunni

In political Islam, Sunnis are the majority group that has always held the supremacy of power. Sunni political thought is often used as a tool of legitimacy for the emerging power in the Islamic world. Some Sunni leaders formulate their political thinking which tends to be accommodating to the powers and pro-status quo. Their view of nature is a common feature of the caliph centrist Sunni political paradigm. Heads of state or caliphate plays an important role and has a very broad powers. The people are required to comply with the heads of state, even among some Sunni thinkers are sometimes exaggerated. Usually they look for the basic legitimacy of the privileges of the state over its people head to the Al-Quran and Hadith of the Prophet. Of which they based the letter al-Nisa, 4:59 which instructs Muslims to obey Allah, His Messenger and the ulu al-amr in between them. In addition, the letter al-An `am, 6:165 which states that God made ​​man as his caliph in the earth and the superiority of some over others.

The presence of Sunnis started since the end of the reign of al-Khilafat al-`Rasyidun. In addition to so-called Sunni, the group also known as ahl al-hadith al-Sunnah wa, ahl al-haqq wa al-Sunna and the ahl al-haqq wa al-din wa al-jama `ah. [7] In simple terms it can be said is understood that the Sunni who clung to the traditions of one of the schools of the four schools (Hanafi, Maliki, and Hanbali Syafi `i) in the field of jurisprudence; the teachings of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash` ari and Abu Mansur al-Maturidi in the field theology: the doctrine of al-Junaid and Al-Ghazali in the field tasauf [8] as well as teaching / thought of the majority of scholars such as al-Mawardi, al-Ghazali and Ibn Taymiyya in the political field (siyasa). Terms of use are known Sunni political context and to distinguish it from other political groups like the Kharijites and Shi'a.

After the Holy Prophet. death of a debate among Muslims about who will replace him as leader of the Muslims. Before the death of the Prophet did not choose and appoint a successor on whom the future. Finally, in a meeting in Saqifah Bani Sa `Idah, elected Abu Bakr as the successor to the Prophet. After that successive elected Umar ibn al-Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib as the leader of the Muslims. They became known as the Khilafat al-Rashidun.

After the end of the four caliphs who are, take the Mu `awiyah the Dynasty of Bani Umaiyah building. But the rise in Mu `awiyah challenged by some Muslims who support Ali (Shiite) and the splinter group Khawarij. Finally in the early period, Muslims are divided into three groups, namely the majority of supporters of Mu `awiyah later known as pilgrims (Sunni), supporters of Ali (Shia and Kharijites. In a further development, the most dominating percturan Sunnilah political Islam.

For the majority, the general features of the Sunni political thought is marked by their views on the integral relationship between religion and state, the caliph centric or obligation to obey the head of state, preferential tribe of Quraysh as Caliphs, the rejection of the opposition and accommodating to power. The views thus eventually led to prefer the principle of harmony in political Islam.

In view of the integral relationship between religion and state, according to Sunni leaders, al-Mawardi, the state was formed to replace the prophetic religion in order to maintain and regulate the life of the world. [9] The institutionalization of the state is based on ijma `fard kifaya scholars. Al-Mawardi's view is based on the historical reality of al-Khilafat al-Rasyidun and the caliphs after them, either Umaiyah and Bani Bani Abbas, who is a symbol of political unity of Muslims. Al-Mawardi's view is also consistent with the rules of fiqh usul al-ma la yatimmu shall illa bihi fahuwa mandatory (an imperfect obligations are met except through the means or tools, the facilities or equipment shall also be met). That is, creating and maintaining well-being is required, then set up as a means of creating a welfare state is also required.

Al-Mawardi opinion above also in line with the thinking of al-Ghazali. According to al-Ghazali, humans are social beings who can not live without help from others. This is where they need to live in a society and state. However, further al-Ghazali, the establishment of the state not only to meet the practical needs of the flesh, but also for preparation for life hereafter. Based view of the above al-Ghazali argued that the obligation of state formation and state elections are not based on pertimbanga ratio, but based on the obligations of religion (shar `i). This is because the welfare and happiness of the hereafter is not achieved without the practice and appreciation of the true religion. [10]

Unlike the above two Sunni thinkers, Ibn Taymiyya argued that regulate human affairs is an important religious obligation, but this does not mean also that religion can not exist without the state. [11] Ibn Taymiyyah rejected the basis of ijma `as a reason for the formation of such states in view of al-Mawardi. He is more sociological approach. According to Ibn Taymiyyah, human welfare can not be achieved except in a social order where everyone is interdependent and requires between one another. For Ibn Taymiyya, the enforcement of state institutions is not based on religion, but only a practical requirement.

In the second problem, all Sunni thinkers who becomes the object of this study agreed on the importance of adherence to the head of state. They considered the head of state as the central figure in Islam. Authority should not be sued, and his orders should not be denied. Within certain limits even this absolute obedience.

Al-Mawardi start opinion on compliance with the state chief state election process. According to al-Mawardi, the selection of heads of state should meet the ahl al-ikhtiyar elements (those entitled to vote) and ahl al-Imamat (the person entitled to occupy the position of head of state). The first element must be qualified fair, knowing well the head of state candidates as well as having extensive knowledge and policy, so as to consider the best for the country. Then, the prospective head of state should meet the seven requirements, which is fair, has sufficient knowledge for the diligence, healthy senses, have the ability to execute commands for the people's faith, courage to protect the territory of Islam, battled the enemy as well as derived from the descendants of Quraysh.

This state elections beginning with the contract between the ahl al-ahl al-ikhtiyar and this Imamat. From this was born the rights and contract obligations on a reciprocal basis between the head of state as a fiduciary and trust of the people as a giver. Head of state government must run properly and in accordance with religious teachings. In return, the head of state entitled to obedience from the people. On the other hand, people who have given their bai `at the head of state must obey the head of state. Obligation to obey is not limited only to heads of state of good and fair, but also for the evil head of state.

Al-Mawardi bases his view on the letter al-Nisa 'verse 49 which obliges Muslims to obey Allah, His Messenger and ulul amri between them. In addition, al-Mawardi also cites the hadith of Abu Hurairah the Prophet, "Someday there will be your leaders after me, whether fair or bad. Listen to and obey them conformed to the truth. If they're good, then it's good for you and them. If they're bad, then good for you and the result of his crime would go back to them. "

Ibn Taymiyya developed the concept of ahl al-syaukah in political theory. According to Ibn Taymiyyah, ahl al-syaukah these were people who came from various backgrounds and a respected position in society. Ahl al-syaukah this is to choose a head of state and do the bai `at which is then followed by the people. One can not become head of state without the support of the ahl al-syaukah.

Al-Ghazali also formulate the terms of the head of state in detail. According to him, the head of state must be qualified adult, healthy brain, independent of men, descendants of Quraysh, obtain guidance and science and wara '. For al-Ghazali, the head of state because the rule does not come from the people, like the opinion of al-Mawardi, but from God, then the head of state power is sacred and should not be denied. The head of state occupies a central position in the country. [12]

In contrast to al-Mawardi and al-Ghazali who formulated the head of state in detail the qualifications, Ibn Taymiyya only set the terms of honesty (trust) and the authority or power (Quwwah) for a candidate for head of state and not absolutize tribe of Quraysh. Indication of a person's honesty can be seen from piety to God, ketidakbersediaannya sell the verses of Allah for the sake of worldly wealth and political importance of practical and no fear attitude to humanity for his taste in truth. To support his opinion, Ibn Taymiyyah quoted verses of the Quran Surat al-Nisa ', 4:58, which commands Muslims to give mandate to their owners.

While the terms Quwwah plays an important role in the political conception of Ibn Taymiyyah, as a head of state is a mentor and protector of society. Duties and responsibilities are very heavy with the highest authority in the community acquired. According to him, the obligation to uphold the institution head of state is amar ma `ruf nahy evil, so that the things which God wills to manifest in the lives of Muslims and individual rights guaranteed in the community.

Continuation of Ibn Taimyah opinion this is his emphasis on the adherence of the people on the head of state. Indeed, as al-Mawardi, Ibn Taymiyya saw a figure head of state holds an important position in the country. As a Muslim leader, the head of state should be obeyed, even though unjust. According to Ibn Taymiyyah, a sixty-year community led by the ruthless head of state is better than no state masyaralat and leadership, even if only overnight.

Of thinking about power above the head of state, three Sunni clerics is to formulate the idea that there should be no opposition or resistance to the head of state. Al-Mawardi stated the hadith of the Prophet, as cited above to support the opinion that the head of state is absolute power. Doing the opposition, although al-Mawardi developed the theory of social contract, is prohibited. The same is confirmed by al-Ghazali. For Hujjah al-Islam, the obligatory upon the people of any level of absolute obedience to the head of state and carry out his orders.

Prohibition of opposition in this classical Sunni political thought is based more on the evil consequences that might occur in the community. Most probably arise in a country atmosphere of chaos when people do kepela opposition to the state. Therefore, for them, to avoid confusion the greater is the need to be taken. Better in a despotic government, for example, but people are not turbulent, rather than its leadership refused to give rise turmoil in society. For all three Sunni thinkers, the head of state is the shadow of God on earth.


Shi'ah and Political Change 

A. Changes in the Islamic Political System

At the time of Mu'awiyah appoint Yazid as his successor, a change and change of political system of the Islamic caliphate system (system selection, who is most 'pious, obedient, good moral). With the advent of Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan became the title of caliph caliph still be used but not Khalifaturrasul, but khalifatullah dhillullah fil fil ard ard (a substitute for God's representative on earth, the shadow of God on earth). So Mu'awiyah even worse. When Abu Bakr Siddik very close to the Messenger of Allah only calls himself khalifaturrasul (vice the Prophet), but Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, claimed as khalifatullah dhillullah fil fil ard ard. Hence the emergence of the Shia, clearly felt diliciki, and indeed diliciki by Mu'awiyah ibn Abi Sufyan.

They then become a strong group, known as Syiah.Karena's most prominent Shiite concept and in fact typical in politics. The difference between the flow of the Sunnah is in the Shiite areas of political thought. Rights of the Caliphate to Ali bin Abi Talib and his descendants, called Imams. So the priest is different in the Shia, because Shias also appear in different, there is moderate Shiites (the majority), there are also extremist groups (Ghulat). Extremist groups and some have argued (small), not only rejected the leadership of Mu'awiyah, but also leadership khulafaurrasyidin such as Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman. Even saying that the apostolic rights is the right of Ali ibn Abi Talib Muhammad is not right because in fact ordered by God's revelation through Gabriel to be delivered to Ali bin Abi Talib, Muhammad not to the extreme the very least, among others, was in Yemen. The most Shia twelve, Ithna 'As'ariyah, or Shia Imami, the priest two-belas.Imam there are twelve Shiite imams. First Ali bin Abi Talib, Hasan ibn Ali, Husayn ibn Ali, Husayn ibn Ali, Husayn ibn Ali Zainal Abidin, Hadrat Muhammad bin Ali al-Baqir, Imam Ja'far Sadiq Muhammad, Imam Musa bin Ja'far Al-Qadhim, Imam Jawwad Ali bin Muhammad, Imam Ali bin Muhammad al-Hadi, Imam Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Askari, Imam Muhammad bin Hasan Al-Qaim (referred to as a supernatural priest) Imam al-Muntadhar, the priest who ditunggu.Dalam Shiite tradition, Imam have a high political position, especially before the reappearance of Imam al-Muntadhar. Imam not only as one who has authority in religious, prayer leader, but also as political leaders. And therefore, political or power belongs to the priest. And the priest is a person who Ma'shum (free from sin).

In the tradition of Shia clerics who truly are experts in Islamic sciences, around ten to five people, their elected and formed a sort of council. They thus form an organization called, in the Shiite tradition, wilayatul faqih. In the Sunni tradition is actually a type of wilayatul faqih also called Ahl-ul-halli wal aqdhi. Group of scholars that is competent, has the authority and binding. Or better known in other terms, the shura council. In NU (Nahdhatul 'Ulama) have Shura Council, whose function is similar to the Shiite jurist wilayatul. Even though in practice, unlike in Iran. Shura council functions among Sunni Muslims are very weak even in the political field is not much play. So just give religious views, had no real power. But in the Shiite tradition, whose name wilayatul faqih, is dominant, both in religion and politik.Itulah we are witnessing in Iran after the Islamic Revolution of Iran (RII), 1979, and now the function and position of faqih wilayatul very dominant. As far as that described in this manuscript, related to the emergence of Shia political strife. And therefore one of the concepts central to the Shia is a matter of politics, which is about the position of the priest, the position of deputy priest, that is absolutely not just in the religious field, but also in politics. And because of that, the priest is very central position. Everyone must follow the Shiite imam. Hence, the sunnah wal ahlu people after the 1979 RII was frustrated because the Muslims do not want to unite. Then among Muslims in Indonesia up the idea, imitate the concept of the Shia Imamate. In the 80's came the concept of Islamic movements in Indonesia or to adopt a centralized leadership of the Imamate. Or then the Sunnah wal ahlu pilgrims taking the concept of Commander of the Faithful, leader of the believers. But it must be said, if there is movement of Indonesia who used the concept of Imamat leadership, should not be considered a Shiite. No. They take the concept of Imamat is a centralized leadership. One. Not divided. Can be understood, the Islamic movement in Indonesia, especially young people, frustrated with the reality of the Muslim leadership of Indonesia. It is necessary to adopt such Imamat leadership in Iran, a centralized leadership, tunggal.Dalam Shia, concerning the political leadership, often compared to those with a tradition in the church. In the Catholic leadership in the Vatican, the pope, bishops, priests and kebawahnya structure. In the Sunni because there is no single Imamat Imamat in the Sunni tradition is the imam of the mosque, does not function as a social and political leadership. Imam, according to the Sunnis do not play the role of social and political leadership, but only leadership in prayer alone. This is a frustrating, many in the congregation Sunnah wal ahlu see that leadership is fragmented, eventually adopted the Shiite leadership models.

Scholars who elected to become a member of the clergy wilayatul faqih is not arbitrary. Highly trusted and scientific integrity. May be different from the Sunni tradition; clerical loose, anyone can be a cleric. But in the Shiite tradition is not so. There is a process, there is even a certain training, headquarters in Qum. There are special printing madrasah candidate Shiite cleric who prepared a mujtahid. In the field of kalam, Shiite kalam generally adheres Mu'tazilah developed. A stream in the Sunni kalam tradition that emphasizes reason, called the rational. Even Muhammad Abduh, the Muslim reformer of the 20th century from Egypt, seen as the person most instrumental in reviving understand that Islam is a rational religion. Religion is encouraging that the Muslims should be proactive, must have the initiative, did not surrender to fate, as if fate had determined for granted, so we do not have to try. This attitude was rejected by the Mu'tazilah. So, Mu'tazilah emphasis on the rational spirit, the spirit of initiative. Shiites follow that view. Of course there are such differences among Shiites with the Sunnis. That is, when speaking of those who viewed Ma'shum. According to Sunni tradition, the Prophet Muhammad Ma'shum only after it is no longer independent of sin. But the Shiites regard the twelve priests who Ma'shum. In view of the Shiites, with Sunni, Allah is Just, it may not punish an innocent person. God gave humans the freedom to choose, because it is through the freedom that it can be held accountable. One can not be held accountable if forced (mujbir). This was the argument in the Islamic rationalists who followed also by the Shiites.
2. Political Modernization in Iran 1963-1997.

Iran is one of the Middle Eastern countries, where the majority of people bermazhab Shiism. Shiism is a religious political movement of Islam in the mid-18th century in its development, established an Islamic Republic of Iran. As one of the religious sects, Shiism ummah fanaticism tend to have a strong character to the leaders and the teachings of his school (purists) and the mullahs always active in politics so as to deliver the "political modernization" in Iran

Political modernization in Iran has begun since Iran's 1979 Islamic Revolution, in fact strongly influenced by the history of the Islamic Republic of Iran where the school of Shiism as a revolutionary ideology to its own values ​​for the struggle. With regard to the modernization of Iran's politics, it appears that the modernization process taking place in Iran resembles the model of modernization of the type of sacred collectivity (collective cosumatorry) that took place in the mobilization system (mobilized system) in which people become agents of modernization.

The implications of such a process of modernization, at least can give you an idea of ​​what it is and how political Shiism Shiism, as well as the teachings of the traditions of Shiism in Iran. Well at least inform the public how powerful Iran holds the culture and values ​​inherited from the school of Shiism doctrine. and gave birth to a form of modern political society with different traits and characteristics of modern societies in other countries.

Reconcile Sunni-Shiite

Is it possible to reconcile Sunni Shiites? The question becomes difficult, when faced various problems. For followers of the Shia, Ali bin Abi Talib RA and his descendants are the priests, religious leaders and people, after the Prophet Muhammad. As for followers of the Sunni, Ali ibn Abi Talib as the other three first four caliphs, Abu Bakr, Umar bin Khathab, Usman bin Affan and.

According to Shiites, Ali and his descendants more than a right to be caliph Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan and his descendants. Meanwhile, the followers of Sunni or Ahl Sunnah wal Jama'ah, a conflict between Muawiyah and Ali had a Sunatullah. In fact, when the Caliphate to Muawiyah lose his son, Yazid, previously selected by consensus of the Caliphate, is also regarded as the cause of Allah and the secret history of the Muslims.

Growing followers of Shiite Iran is a Shiite Ja'fari today. They believe the Prophet Muhammad has set 12 as the successor to his treatise on imams. To the priest-12 was started from Ali ibn Abi Talib, who goes down to his descendants to-12, Muhammad Al-Muntazar (Al-Mahdi).

According to some Islamic thinkers, when looking for differences between Shia and Sunni, would be decomposed at length and have no end. In the end, prolonged a bloody conflict. He pointed to the case of Iraq, Pakistan, Lebanon, and in other countries. In these countries, Islam has a lot of conflicts among casualties. In fact, it should be the religion of Islam which gives peace.

Departing from the fact that the thinker of the Muslims tried to campaign for the modernization of Islam. Lilalamin rahmatan Islam is a religion, a religion that gives grace, instead of giving misery and suffering. Modernization of thought, particularly in Islamic thought, believed to provide the basis for tolerance and openness of thought. With a broad mind, it is expected the gap between Sunnis and Shiites can be reduced slowly-slowly.

 In addition, with the modernization of thought, perhaps it takes no longer how to reconcile Sunnis with Shiites, but how working together is more profitable, without touching the principal differences of each.

Closing .. References and footnotes
Sunni and Shia are the two major groups of theology and politics in Islam. Each individual has emerged since classical times, although the labeling of the name "Sunni-Shia" that was some time later. In terms of modernization, both Sunni and Shia in the accounts of political thought. Shiites in Iran with the concept imamahnya successfully transformed into a Muslim state based Syia. In theological thought, it seems Sunnis often criticized as a rejection of modernization, because the doctrines that cause mandegnya think. Like the doctrine of "human actions are created by God."

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Footnote

[1] Seyyed Hossein Nasr, The Heart Of Islam, trans. Faqih Nurasiah Sutan Harahap, Universal messages of Islam to humanity (New York: Mizan, 2003), p. 80.
[2] Ibn Taymiyya, Minhaj al-Sunnah al Nabawiyah Naqdl al Shia wa fi al Qadariyah (Beirut, Dar al Pole al Ilmiyah, tt) h.118
[3] John L. Esposito, Islam and Politics, trans. (New York: New Ichtiar Van Hoeve, 1990), p. 84-89.
[4] Karen Armstrong, Battle for God, trans. New York: Image Books, 2001), p. 350.
[5] Maududi, Abul A'la, the Caliphate and the Kingdom, trans. (Jakarta: Mizan, 1996), p. 47.
[6] Syafiq Mughni, Islamic values; Formulation of the Doctrine and Efforts Actualization (New York: Persada Grafindo, 2001), p. 34.
[7] Muhammad Amin Suma, "Kelommpok and Movement," in Taufik Abdullah, ed., World Thematic Encyclopedia of Islam, (New York: New Ichtiar van Hoeve, 2002), p. 358: see also Harun Nasution, Islamic Theological Schools of Comparative Historical Analysis, (Jakarta: UI Press, 1986), p. 64-65.
[8] Zamakhsyari Dhofier, Tradidi School, (New York: LP3ES, 1994), p. 149.
[9] Abu al-Hasan al-Mawardi, al-Ahkam al-Sulthâniyah, (Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, t.tp.), p. 5.
[10] Al-Ghazali, al-al-Masbûk Tibr Nâshihat fi al-Muluk, translation Ahmadie Ilyas Ismail Taha, (New York: Mizan, 1994), p. 136: see also Munawir Sjadzali, Islam and the State Administration, p. 74-76.
[11] Ibn Taymiyyah, Al-siyasa al-shar `Yeah ishlah fi al-Ra` i Ra `wa al-iyyah, (Egypt: Dar al-Kitab al-'Arabi, 1969), p. 161.
[12] Ibn Taymiyya, Minhaj al-Sunna al-Nabawiyah II, (Riyadh: Maktabah al-Riyadh al-Haditsah, tt), p. 209.
Ibrahim Lubis

Penulis:

Judul Makalah: Modernization of thought in Islam (Sunni-Shiite)
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