moral education - Aneka Ragam Makalah

moral education

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Virtue is a habit of human nature or which is reflected in everyday behavior. in this respect and moral etikan is a branch of moral sense into the discussion this time. Religious history shows that kebehagiaan to be achieved by running the Islamic religion can only be accomplished with a good character. Belief that only the shape of the knowledge of the oneness of God, worship is done only as a mere formality, which is only muamalah rules contained in the book of course, all this is not a guarantee for the achievement of happiness. 

The emergence of moral consciousness and the establishment of His human is the base that determines the pattern of human life. Character, or morals, or decency is a pattern of actions that are based on the absolute value of kindness. Moral life, and every moral act is the right answer to the moral consciousness, the opposite of life that does not have good morals and ethics of each violation is against this awareness.

Moral consciousness is consciousness of himself, in which men see or feel themselves as dealing with good and bad. Therein distinguish lawful and unlawful, right and falsehood, can and can not be done, although he could do. That is a special human. In the animal world there is nothing good or bad or inappropriate inappropriate, because the only men that understand themselves, just as the subject is people who realize that he faced in his actions, before, during and after the work was done. So that the subjects who experienced his actions he can be held accountable for the offense.

In various literature on the science of Islamic morality, morality encountered a description of the general can be divided into two bagia, namely good morals (morals al-karimah), and bad manners (morals madzmumah). Be fair, honest, patient, forgiving, generous and trustworthy for example included in good morals. While doing that dhalim, lying, angry, vindictive, mean, and fraudulently included in bad morals. Theoretically, these kinds of moral berinduk on three main actions, namely wisdom (wise), syaja'ah (officer / warrior) and Iffah (keeping away from sin and sinners). 

The laws of morality, law is the law relevant to the improvement of life (moral); explain the admirable traits or virtues that should be used as jewelry or shield one's self as honest, fair, reliable, and the reprehensible nature of should be shunned by a person such as lie, dzalim, treacherous. The properties are described in the Qur'an and Sunnah and the Special studied in Moral Sciences (ethics) and the Mysticism of Science.

a. Morals
There are two approaches that can be used to define the character, the linguistic approach (linguistic), and terminologik approach (terminology).  From this point of language, morality comes from the Arabic language, which is isim mashdar (infinitive form) of the word al-akhlaqa, yukhliqu, ikhlaqan, according to the scales (wazan) tsulasi majid af'ala, yuf'ilu if'alan which means al-sajiyah ( temperament), at-thobi'ah (conduct, character, character basis), al-adat (custom, custom), al-maru'ah (civilization is good) and al-din (religion). But the root of morality akhlaqa as mentioned above which seems to not quite fit, because of the word akhlaqa isim Masdar is not moral, but ikhlak. In this regard, it arises the idea that the linguistic, moral is isim jamid or isim ghair mustaq, namely isim who do not have the root word, but said it had been granted. 

To explain the moral sense in terms of terminology, we can refer to a variety of expert opinion in this field. Ibn Miskawayh (d. 421 H/1030 M) is known as a leading expert on the field of morals and the previous example, it simply says that morality is embedded in the soul of nature that prompted him to do anything without the need for thought and consideration.

Meanwhile, Imam Al-Ghazali (1015-1111 AD), hereinafter known as hujjatul Islam (Defenders of Islam), because of his skill in defending Islam from the various ideologies that are considered misleading, with somewhat more extensive than Ibn Miskawayh, said character is the nature of the embedded in life that give rise to a variety of actions with gambling and easily, without requiring thought and consideration.

These definitions are substantially morals seem to be complementary, and from it we can see the five traits included in the act of morality, namely: first, moral act is an act that has been firmly entrenched in one's soul, so it has become kepribadiaannya. Secondly, moral act is an act done easily and without thinking. This does not mean that when doing a deed, which is concerned in a state of unconsciousness, memory loss, sleep or crazy. Third, that the moral actions are actions that arise in people who do it, without any coercion or pressure from outside. Moral actions are actions performed on the basis of the will, choices and decisions in question. Fourth, that the moral act is an act which is done by real, rather than play or because of playacting. Fifth, in line with the fourth act of moral traits (especially good morals) is as sincere deeds done solely for Allah, not because people want to be praised, or because they want to get a compliment. [3]

b. Ethics
In terms of etymology (the study of the origin of the word), ethics comes from the Greek ethos meaning character or custom decency. In a general dictionary of Indonesian, the science of ethics is defined azaz azaz-character (moral). Of understanding is seen that the ethics kebahsaan associated with efforts to determine human behavior.

The meaning of the term in terms of ethics, has been suggested by experts with different expressions according to the point of view. By ahmad amin define ethics is the science that explains the meaning of good and bad, to explain what should be done by humans, stating the goals to be pursued by men in their deeds and show the way to do what it should be done.

Next, in the Encyclopedia Britannica, ethics expressed as moral philosophy, the study systematically about the nature of the concepts of the good, bad, be, true, false, and so forth. From the above definition of ethics, can be known that the ethics associated with the following four. First, in terms of object the discussion, trying to discuss the ethics of actions performed by humans. Both in terms of its source, ethics rooted in the mind or philosophy. As a result of thought, then the ethics are not absolute, absolute nor universal. It is limited, it can turn, have a deficiency, excess, and so forth. In addition, ethics also utilize various memebahas science of human behavior such as anthropology, psychology, sociology, political science, economics and so on. Third, in terms of its function, ethics serves as appraisers, determining and settlers against something that was done by humans, namely whether such actions will be judged good, bad, noble, honorable, humble, and so forth. Thus ethics act more as a drafter for a number of behaviors performed by humans. Ethics refers more to the assessment system of values ​​that exist. Fourth, in terms of character, ethics are relative which may vary according to the demands of the times. 

With such traits, characteristics, then ethics is more a science that deals with efforts to determine the human that was done for good or bad dikatan. Ideas expressed by philosophers west of the good or bad can be grouped to ethical thinking, because it comes from the thought. Thus the nature of humanistic and anthropocentric ethics that are in human thought and directed in humans. In other words, ethics is a rule or pattern of behavior that dihasulkan by human reason.

c. Moral
The moral sense in terms of languages ​​derived from Latin, the plural of the word mores, which means indigenous customs mos. In the Indonesian general dictionary dikatan pennetuan that moral good is bad for actions and behavior.

The next moral in the sense of the term is a term used to define the limits of nature, temperament, will, opinions or actions that can reasonably be said right, wrong, good or bad. Based on the above quotation, it is understood that the moral is the term used to provide restrictions on human activities with the (provision) is good or bad, right or wrong. 

If the ethical and moral sense are related to each other, we can mengetakan that the ethical and moral thinking about the same object, they both talk about human action is determined whether good or bad position. However, in some respects between the ethical and moral differences. First, if the discussion of ethics, to determine the value of human actions are good or bad use of benchmarks or the ratio of the mind, while measuring the use of moral decline is the norms that grow and develop and place in society. Thus be more ethical and philosophical thinking in concepts, while ethics is in the plain reality and appears in behavior in society. 

Thus the benchmark used to measure the moral human behavior is the customs, habits and other requirements in the community.  Ethical and moral synonymous but in everyday use there is little difference. Morals or morality is used for actions that are being assessed, while ethics is used to study the existing system. 

Erta moral consciousness with a conscience is also a foreign language is called conscience, conscientia, gewissen, geweten, and the Arabic language is called the qalb, fu'ad. In the moral consciousness involves three things. First, a feeling of obligation or necessity to perform immoral acts. Second, moral awareness can also tangible rational and objective, which is an act that is umumk be accepted by society, as it is objective and can be applied universally, meaning that it can be approved policies at any time and place for everyone who are in similar situations . Third, moral consciousness may also appear in the form of freedom.

Based on the description above, can come to a conclusion, that the more moral or value refers to a living system implemented or enforced by the community. Value or the life Sitem believed by the public as that would give hope of the advent of happiness and peace. These values ​​may have about the feeling of obligation, rational, and freedom generally. If these values ​​are ingrained in a person, it would form his own moral consciousness. Such people will easily be able to perform an action without any encouragement or coercion from outside.

d. Characteristics of the teachings of Islam
Simply Islamic morality can be interpreted as a character based on the teachings of Islam or Islamic morals are. The word Islam is behind the word morality in terms of the position of the properties.  Thus Islamic morality is the act by simple, deliberate, and ingrained in fact based on the teachings of Islam. In terms of a universal nature, it is also Islamic morality is universal. However, in order to describe the universal character of this Islamic thought needed the help of human reason and social opportunities contained in the ethical and moral teachings. 

In other words, Islamic morality is the morality which in addition recognize the universal values ​​as the basic form of morality, it also recognizes the values ​​of local and temporal nature as a translation of the universal values ​​it. However, it should be emphasized here that the moral teachings of religion can not be equated with ethics or morals, ethics and morals even though it is required in order to describe the moral basis of religion (Islamic morality). It is thus limited due to ethical niceties between fellow man, and is only concerned with outward behavior. So when ethics is used to describe Islamic morality, it does not mean that Islamic morality can be described completely by the ethics or morals.

The scope of Islamic morality is the same as the scope of the teachings of Islam itself, especially with regard to the pattern of relationships. Diniah morality (religion / Islam) covers various aspects, from the character of God, to the fellow beings (humans, animals, plants, and objects that are lifeless).

Finally, viewed from the function and role, it can be said that ethics, morals, decency and morality together, the law or determine the value of a human that was done to determine the merits. All these terms are equally require the creation of a state of good society, orderly, safe, peaceful, prosperous and peaceful so that the inner and lahiriyah. The difference between ethics, morality, and decency in morals is located at the source which is used as a benchmark for determining good and bad. If the bad ethics of good judgment based on the opinion of a mind, and the moral and ethic based on generally accepted practice in society, then the character size used to determine whether it is bad al-Quran and al-Hadith. Another difference between ethics, morals and decency seen also on the nature and discussion areas. If more theoretical ethics, on morals and decency are more practical. Ethical view of human behavior in general, while the moral and ethic are local and individual. Ethics explains the size of the good-bad, while the moral and the moral claim that size in the form of action. 

However, ethics, morals, decency and morality remain interconnected and need. The above description shows clearly that ethics, morals and decency berasala of product ratios and culture that is selectively recognized as a useful and good for human survival. While the character comes from revelation, that provision based on the instructions of the Qur'an and the Hadith. In other words if the ethics, morals and decency of human origin, while morals come from God.

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Judul Makalah: moral education
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